Sarcoma, Granulocytic

Below you will find more information about Sarcoma, Granulocytic from Medigest. If you believe that you are suffering from any of the symptoms of Sarcoma, Granulocytic it is important that you obtain an accurate diagnosis from a medical professional to ensure that you obtain the correct medication or treatment for your condition. There are medical conditions that carry similar symptoms associated with Sarcoma, Granulocytic and therefore the information provided by Medigest is offered as a guideline only and should never be used in preference to seeking professional medical advice. The information relating to Sarcoma, Granulocytic comes from a third party source and Medigest will not be held liable for any inaccuracies relating to the information shown.

Definition

Granulocytic sarcoma is a form of chloroma, characterized by the appearance of a solid tumor consisting of myeloblasts (i.e. or white blood cells that are described as immature and malignant). It is also alternatively known as granulocytic sarcoma or (more appropriately) extramedullary myeloid tumor. Basically, a chloroma is a solid collection of leukemic cells found outside the bone marrow; in particular, it is an extramedullary symptom of acute myeloid leukemia.

Diagnosis

Granulocytic sarcoma can be diagnosed based on a biopsy of the affected tissue. It is also important to eliminate other possibilities in diagnosis, because granulocytic sarcoma is very similar to malignant lymphoma in pathology. However, modern diagnostic techniques now exist to distinguish it from lymphoma, including the use of monoclonal antibodies to analyze its immunohistochemistry.

Treatment

Granulocytic sarcoma should be treated as a manifestation of a systemic disease, rather than as a distinct entity. In patients with leukemia and other associated chloroma, the first-line of treatment is systemic chemotherapy to fight the leukemia. However, if the granulocytic sarcoma is resistant to chemotherapy, surgical intervention or radiation therapy may be necessitated.

Symptoms and Signs

Granulocytic sarcoma can affect any organ or tissue in the body, but they most commonly occur in the gums and the skin. When affecting the skin, signs of granulocytic sarcoma include raised, violaceous, non-tender nodules or plaques composed of myeloblasts. When affecting the gums, the tumor manifests with swollen and painful gums that bleed easily during tooth brushing or other minor trauma. Granulocytic sarcoma may also appear in the small intestine, lymph nodes, epidural sites, mediastinum, ovaries, and uterus. Symptoms vary according to the tumor's specific location. In some cases, affected patients may be asymptomatic. In extremely rare cases, the central nervous system is involved, taking the form of meningeal leukemia (i.e. leukemic cells invading the subarachnoid space).

Causes

Granulocytic sarcoma tumors are extremely rare. They are more commonly described as manifestations of leukemia, and occur simultaneous with specific cytogenetic abnormalities, myeloblasts with T-cell surface markers, or elevated peripheral white blood cell amounts. In general, granulocytic sarcoma develops as a complication of acute myeloid leukemia.

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